Our WFU Interdisciplinary Linguistics Minor
announces a special lecture by
Dr. Adam Ussishkin
University of Arizona
Assoc. Professor of Linguistics & Cognitive Science
Psycholinguistics of under-studied languages: the case of subliminal speech priming in Maltese
Early and automatic processing of linguistic stimuli is fairly well-studied for resource-heavy languages such as English (cf. work on visual masked priming by Forster and Davis 1984, Forster et al. 2003, among many others), whereas psycholinguistic studies on languages with few resources are much rarer. In this talk, I first describe the creation of the first online language corpus of Maltese, a Semitic languages for which few electronic resources exist. Next, I discuss the application of the corpus to a psycholinguistic question and investigate the psycholinguistic reality of the consonantal root, a building block of Semitic languages. This investigation is carried out using the relatively novel subliminal speech priming technique.
Thursday March 1st @ 4pm in Greene Hall 162
ROMAN JAKOBSON, a linguist, is credited with the notion that languages differ not so much in what they can express as what they must express. The common trope that language X has no word for Y is usually useless (it usually means language X uses several words instead of one for Y). But languages do differ significantly in what they force speakers to express, something Lera Boroditsky talks about often in support of the “linguistic relativity” hypothesis.
I was thinking of this today when on the subway, I saw a young man whose shoulder bag bore six red buttons, with “I am loved” written in white, identical except that each was in a different language. They look like this. (I later learned that this is an old campaign that began with the Helzberg Diamond company.)
What struck me was that three of the buttons identified him as female: soy amada (Spanish), io sono amata (Italian) and sou amada (Portuguese). In each, the past participle of “to love” (amar/amare) must agree with the loved thing, and the -a is a feminine ending. The young chap should have had soy amado etc. The poor button-makers had to pick one or the other, and chose feminine.
The German forced no such choice: a man or a woman can say Ich bin geliebt, as the young commuter’s pin did. And Russian doesn’t require it either, but the translation is menya lyubyat, “they love me”.
And Russian (more than most languages) forces a bunch of other distinctions on English speakers. The average verb of motion requires you to express whether you’re going by vehicle or foot, one-direction or multidirectionally, and in the past tense, makes you include an ending for your own gender. So “I went” would, in one Russian word (khodila, say), express “I [a female] went [by foot] [and I came back].” If you don’t want to express all of that, tough luck. You have to. Jakobson himself was Russian. Perhaps his native language led him to the insight above; learning the English verb go might have had the Russian wondering “that’s it? By what means? There and back, or what? We would never put up with this in Russian.”
When most people tell you some very unusual word “can’t be translated”, they usually mean words like these “Relationship words that aren’t translatable into English”: shockingly specific single words in other languages like mamihlapinatapei, which is apparently Yagan for “the wordless yet meaningful look shared by two people who desire to initiate something, but are both reluctant to start.” But of course mamihlapinatapei is translatable into English. It’s ”the wordless yet meaningful look shared by two people who desire to initiate something, but are both reluctant to start.” Needing several words for one isn’t the same as untranslatability.
What really can’t be translated properly is “go” into Russian, or “loved” into Spanish, not because the English words are too specific but because they’re too vague. Those languages force you to say much more, meaning the poor Helzberg Diamond people can’t make a single button reading “I am loved” in Spanish for both men and women. The traditional idea of “can’t be translated” has the facts exactly backwards. Who knew that the truly untranslatable words were those that say the least?
1. Download the Tree-Tagger software for Windows.
2. Unzip this file into your C:\Program files\ directory. Using WinZip, make sure you have the “Use folder names” box ticked and extract all files.
3. Download the parameter file(s) that you need and extract them into the subdirectory C:\Program Files\TreeTagger\lib
5. Then make a shortcut to the desktop by right-clicking on the tagger and/or training programs and selecting create shortcut. Drag that shortcut to the desktop.
You should now be able to launch TreeTagger from the desktop.
Here are the instructions to install the vislcg3 constraint grammar on a Mac.
1. Install the Xcode developer tools (App Store)
2. Install cmake and boost. I use Homebrew, but I imagine you could use MacPorts or Fink.
3. Install ICU. This takes a few steps:
A. Download the package here: http://download.icu-project.org/files/icu4c/4.8.1/icu4c-4_8_1-src.tgz (or the latest version) and decompress it:
$ gunzip -d < icu4c-4_8_1-src.tgz | tar -xvf -
$ cd icu/source/
It's a good idea to make sure the permissions are set so run:
$ chmod +x runConfigureICU configure install-sh
B. Now run the runConfigureICU like so:
$ ./runConfigureICU MacOSX
C. You'll then make and make install, and you should be golden:
$ sudo make install
4. Now it's time to get to vislcg3.
A. Download the files from the svn repository:
$ svn co http://beta.visl.sdu.dk/svn/visl/tools/vislcg3/trunk vislcg3
Then move into the main directory:
$ cd vislcg3/
B. Do a checkup on the install:
C. Run make and make install to finalize this thing.
$ sudo make install
D. Now check to see that it's in your path:
$ which vislcg3
And if you get a path to the binary, you're ready to go!
While searching for code examples in R for creating word clouds, I stumbled across this neat tool to create on-the-fly word clouds. Wordle provides a clean and basic interface to creating your own wordle or browsing others made on the site.
Here’s a cloud I created based on the Mexican film “Y tu mamá también” from 2001.
You can create your own wordle here.
Scientists are talking, but mostly to each other: a quantitative analysis of research represented in mass media
An issue that needs to be addressed: how to convey the findings from science to the general public.
This comes on the heals of a message to the linguistic community from David Lightfoot (LSA) that the National Science Foundation is looking to cut the directorate that oversees funding in linguistics.
In this message there is information on how to help, including writing your house representative.
I’ve been on a TED marathon recently. Just the other day this presentation by Deb Roy appeared and blew my mind. This is an amazing project that really underlines the power of corpus data in providing a snapshot of the secret world of language use. Deb at one point makes the suggestion that this approach is as important as the telescope was. I completely agree. The visualizations help drive this point home in that they are very effective in communicating the complex relationships between language use and behavioral interaction in an intuitive way.
Deb Roy: The birth of a word